1. Curriculum as a syllabus to be transmitted

This model focuses on the most effective way to deliver the knowledge to students. Its benefit is the familiarity to students when it comes to courses leading to exams. However, this model does not indicate the importance or order of the material to be studied as it is the traditional textbook approach. When educators choose to adapt this model, it is likely that they only focus on the content of knowledge.

2. Curriculum as product

This model is systematic and organized. One can clearly view the notion of outcome which makes organizing the content and method easy. Students can be evaluated based on their results or the products. On the other side, the restricted organization approach of this model limits students and educators in their learning/teaching experience. Students are told exactly what they are supposed to do which limits the opportunity for classroom interactions. As a result, both the students and the educators may not realize the importance of learning that is the result of interactions.

3. Curriculum as process

This model views curriculum as the classroom interaction rather than a physical thing. This model does not provide a series of materials or syllabus to be taught; it is an attempt or experiment in classrooms. Students have a clear voice in this environment because the focus is on learning, not teaching, due to the emphasis on interactions. However, there is a limit to variation of this approach as many students and their parents prioritize performance on exams as success of the course.

4. Curriculum as praxis

This model is based on the process model but further focuses on emancipation. The curriculum is developed through the interaction of action and reflection as students and educators go through a process of negotiation and recognition of problems. During this process, students face the problems of their existence and will face their own oppression.

In my experience, curriculum as a syllabus to be transmitted was the most prominent one. For many classes that I had in high school, the teachers made sure that we were on track with the curriculum because we had to learn everything as planned in each semester. This model helped us prepare for exams but did not allow much creativity and classroom interactions.